Emergent Aquatic Weed Identification

Emergent Aquatic Weeds: weeds that have stems and leaves protruding above the water's surface. These water weeds have roots anchored to the substrate/lakebed/floor of the water body. Below is a list of Australian aquatic plants species that are considered weeds, links to products we supply and methods we reccommend to use to help erradicate water weeds.

There are also 3 other types of Aquatic Weeds:

Common Reed

Species: Phragmites australis     Family: Gramineae

Distribution
NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA

Description
Grows to 4m high with an extensive rhizome system. Stems rigid with multiple nodes roughly 15cm diameter with hollow internodes, leaves alternate up to 70cm long with hairs. 

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Common Rush

 Species: Jucus usitatus    Family: Juncaceae

Distribution
NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA

Description
A tufted, leafless perennial rush with cylindrical, green, pithy stems up to 1m tall. No leaves. Leaf sheaths pale or shiny dark brown or pink-brown toward base, straw coloured and loose toward apex, up to 180mm long. Stems usually 1-2mm diameter.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Common Spike-rush

Species: Eleocharis acuta    Family: Cyperaceae

Distribution
NSW, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA

Description
250mm to 400mm tall, Small Spike Rush, is rhizomatous macrophyte that forms dense swards. Eleocharis acuta has fine green, cylindrical, upright foliage. Flower and seed head at the very tip of its stem.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Cumbungi (Bullrush)

Species: Typha latifolia    Family: Typhaceae

Distribution
VIC, TAS

Description
The grass-like leaves are thick and spongy, and are borne on either side of a stout, cane-like stem growing to 3m high. The flower head is produced in summer. Each stem produces one flower head divided into an upper spike of male flowers, and below this a cylindrical spike of female flowers. Generally the leaves of the introduced cumbungi are about 1m in length compared to 2–3m for the native species. All species grow in permanent fresh or brackish water. Leaves grow in bunches from below water level, are flat or slightly rounded and sometimes springy.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Introduced

Mechanical Control

Cumbungi (Orientals/Domingensis)

Species: Typha orientalis and Typha domingensis        Family: Typhaceae (Orientals/Domingensis)

Distribution
NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA

Description
up to 4m high; rhizomes to 2.5cm diameter; stems to 20mm diameter, leaves with blade to 2m long, to 30mm wide. Widely naturalised in south-western Western Australia. The spikes and leaves are usually wide on T. orientalis.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Dirty Dora / Rice Sedge

Species: Cyperus difformis    Family: Cyperaceae

Distribution
NSW, NT, QLD, SA, VIC, WA

Description
tufted herb with one to many thin, soft erect stems reaching over 30cm in maximum height. There are usually a few long, wispy leaves around the base of the plant. The inflorescence is a rounded bundle 1-3cm wide, containing up to 120 spikelets, each long and partially or entirely covered in up to 30 bracted flowers. The flowers are light brown with areas darker brown and sometimes a yellowish or purplish tint.

Life Cycle
Annual

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Giant Sedge

Species: Cyperus exaltatus    Family: Cyperaceae

Distribution
NSW, NT, QLD, SA, VIC, WA

Description
2m tall, stems have 3-angles, smooth leaves, Inflorescence compound or decompound, with 5–10 primary branches to 18cm long; spikes narrow-cylindrical, 2–5cm long, 0.5–1.5cm diameter; involucral bracts leaf-like, 4–6 to 90cm long. Spikelets flattened, numerous per spike, 4–18mm long

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Jointed Twigrush

Species: Baumea articulata    Family: Cperaceae

Distribution
NSW, VIC, SA, WA, TAS

Description
Grows to 2.5m, leaves basal, the branching reddish brown seed head is between 30-40cm long and is loosely clustered with many flowers, leaves are dark green and originate from the base and are reduced to greyish papery sheaths. The upper leaves have a soft hollow blade up to 120cm long. The stems are up to 180cm high, hollow and cylindrical.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Maundia Triglochinoides

Species: Maundia triglochinoides    Family: Maundiaceae (formally Juncaginacae)

Distribution
NSW, QLD,

Description
Rhizomes about 5mm thick and emergent tufts of leaves arising along their length. Leaves are spongy, inflated and triangular in cross section, to 80cm long, sometimes longer, 5 - 10mm wide. Inflorescence to 10cm long and 2.5cm wide. Carpels (female parts of flower) 6 - 8mm long, sessile, each with a spreading beak. The fruit is 1cm long to 8mm wide.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Para Grass

Species: Urochloa mutica [synonym Brachiaria mutica]       Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)

Distribution
NSW, NT, QLD, WA

Description
Para grass can grow up to 5m long. It is a vigorous, semi prostate perennial grass. Its stems are distinguishable by its hairy nodes with leaf sheaths and blades growing up to 2cm wide and 30cm long. Flower heads up to 18cm long and made up of several spikes, each about 5cm long. Seeds cluster thickly along each spike. Often found in wet situations, especially drains, but will also grow in deep soils in non-swampy areas.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Introduced

Mechanical Control

Torpedo Grass

Species: Panucum repens    Family: Poaceae

Distribution
NSW, QLD

Description
Branching rhizomes, which are thick and pointed. The rhizomes creep along the ground or float in water, forming floating mats. They can reach a length of 6m and a soil depth of 7m, and they can form a mat 15cm thick. The stems are 20-90cm tall, sometimes reaching 1m. They grow erect or bend down. The leaves are stiff and straight, linear in shape, and flat or folded. They are sometimes white in colour and waxy in texture. The inflorescence is a loose panicle of branches bearing small spikelets 2-3mm long.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Introduced

Mechanical Control

Water Couch

Species: Paspalum distichum [synonym Paspalum paspalodes]      Family: Poaceae (Gramineae) 

Distribution
NSW, QLD, VIC, SA, NT, ACT, WA

Description
Creeping perennials to 50cm tall, with rather slender to rather stout whitish or yellowish rhizomes, and extensive many-noded, branching, stolons often forming loose mats; nodes dark, usually glabrous. Leaf blades to 15cm long. 2 racemes producing a V-shaped inflorescence.

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Tall Spikerush

Species: Eleocharis sphacelata    Family: Cyperaceae 

Distribution
NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA

Description
1-2m tall, a rhizomatous macrophyte that grows in or near still fresh water in dams, swamps, lakes, creeks and drainage swales. Large green cylindrical upright reeds that resemble spikes. The flower and seed head is on the tip of each reed. 

Life Cycle
Perennial

Origin
Native

Mechanical Control

Scroll to Top